The ghost, who is haunting on the Ellertveld, in the heuvel ['hill' or 'barrow'] called de papelooze kerk, has made [heeft gelegd] the hunebed at Noordsleen. Versfelt , map pi. In a study about barrows, Westendorp wrote: Presently hunebed DPapeloze Kerk lies about halfway between Noord-Sleen and Schoonoord the latter small village was founded in D49 is now usually indicated as being 'near Schoonoord', but in , when that village did not yet exist, Westendorp meant D49, when he wrote about 'the hunebed of Noordsleen', but it is also clear that he did not inspect it.
Abramy reported, in , about the outer appearance of D49, which report Westendorp inserted in his treatise about the hunebedden p. This tomb stands on a small rise'. But he was not aware that this passage overlapped with what he had written in the preceding paragraph about the Papelooze Kerk. And documents from 78 state that not far from Schoonoord 'there is a hunnebed, which is known by the name of Papelooze Kerk, within living memory.
Etymologists have not yet studied this now forgotten name. Ste e nen means 'stones'. Verdam's 'Concise Dictionary of Middle Dutch' , records the medieval word caelliau, caliau, which meant ' keisteen pebble , and was clearly related to caillou in French. If ' cal in 'Calsteenen is derived from this word, it would mean, illogically, 'Pebble Stones'. Further, Callen meant 'speak- ing', 'talking', 'chatting', 'babbling', 'giving away' [cf.
English 'to call'] and calle was 'the name of various birds', and also meant a 'gossip', 'darling' or even 'tart' Verdam , If Cal derived from Calumme, meaning 'column' Verdam , , it would mean 'Column Stones', which reminds one of the Columnae Herculis near Rolde see section '' , but seems literally far-fetched, because Rolde is 21 km away. The name Calsteenen is mentioned nowhere else, however, and the present-day name Steenbergen 'Stone-heaps' of the tomb Dl-Steenbergen and the neigh- bouring hamlet seems to have been prevailing.
Hunebed Dl3-Eext was reputedly called Sternberg 'Barrow with a voice' , be- cause of the rumbling noise heard when the capstones were probed with an iron rod when they were still covered by an earthen barrow, about Van Lier But in my opinion this idea may also be due to misreading of the general term Steenberg by Van Lier see section ''.
I cannot remember to have heard or read this name before. Have visitors of the Hunnenborg at Denekamp, Province of Overijssel, erroneously introduced the name to Midlaren? D3 and D4 are situated on the Steenakkers 'arable fields with [hunebed] stones' and hunebed DWestenes-N lies op den Stien Camp 'on the field with the [hunebed] stone [s]'. The terms 'altar' and 'dolmen Whether the hunebeds were tombs or altars, or both, was discussed for a long time in Germany, but not in The Netherlands.
The medieval names hunebedden etc. Schonhovius see section '' thought that they were altars, and Scheie, shortly after Scheie , 1: Van Giffen 1 , n , who mis- takenly concluded that Westendorp , 54 had called hunebed D50, not D49, 'Papelooze kerk'. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 35 Copyrighted material thought that they were simultaneously graves and altars see section 'The word hunebed'. He would have been influenced by the current ideas in Germany.
The idea that they were altars was soon rejected once and for all in The Netherlands by Van Slichtenhorst , and subsequent authors, because the curved cap- stones were obviously unsuitable - in contrast to the flat capstones of most TRB dolmens. Primeval dolmens with flat capstones had never been found in The Netherlands, which is perhaps another reason that Dutch scholars rejected the idea that hunebeds were altars, unlike their colleagues in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia.
The 'Stone' Ul of Lage Vuursche occurs in illustrations beginning about 1. Perhaps it was unearthed from a sandy rise that was levelled, about Bakker a. It was interpreted it as a prehistoric monument for the first time, by Jacques Scheltema in his study 'Berigt over een oud altaar, Dolmin 80 of een naar een Hunebed zweemend overblijfsel van de eerste bewoners dezer landen A Note on an Ancient Altar, Dolmin , or Remnant bearing a slight likeness to a Hunebed, from the first Inhabitants of these Regions'.
In , the current Scandinavian, German and French literature still considered dolmens to be altars. Ten years later, the Danish archaeologist Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae [ ] demonstrated that dolmens were burial chambers, and this was generally accepted for the TRB North and West Group dolmens.
G5-Heveskesklooster, excavated in the early s, turned out to be a 'rect- angular dolmen', the first genuine dolmen in The Netherlands. The idea of J. Hoika , , that hunebed G3-Glimmen was a dolmen instead of a short passage grave, has not been accepted by the excavator J. From Schonhovius to De Wilde Hermanus Hartogh Heijs van Zouteveen  discussed Schonhovius's text about the Pillars of Hercules in Germania briefly in the first volume of the Nieuwe Drentsche Volksalmanak , the publication of which he had initiated. Gratama reacted in the second volume Gratama b.
Anthonius Schonhovius Batavus Antony van Schoonhove [ca. In , he finished a Latin treatise about the location of the Germanic tribes mentioned by the classical authors, particularly Tacitus, whose Germania had been found and printed in the 15th century. Schonhovius argued that the Columnae Herculis of Tacitus were represented by a hunebed in or near the village Rolde in Drenthe. He added a local legend and some other information, but disregarded the explanation, given by Tacitus, that 'we are accustomed to ascribe magnificent things' to the fame of Hercules. He did not question why Germanicus would have had to sail over the Germanic Ocean to see the northern Pillars of Hercules while he could easily have visited them by going over land, to Drenthe see below.
Did Germanicus suppose he would find the Pillars on Heligoland, perhaps?
LangbettD43 in Bakker Van Lee u wen 51 Schonhovius see section '' thought that they were altars, and Scheie, shortly after Scheie , 1: The Dutch hunebeds are notable for their incredible masses of sherds, the processing of which may take several years. B, van der Sanden, July 19, Do you believe that this item violates a copyright? Be the first to review this item Would you like to tell us about a lower price?
I translate freely, with abridgements: They are greatly admired by visitors, because the stones, which form an enormous heap, are so large that no cart or ship could have conveyed them. And there are no stone quarries because the region is marshy. So, it is surmised that they were brought in by demons, who are venerated under the name of Hercules. He himself was not born in the small town of Schoonhoven at the border of Holland and Utrecht in 'Batavia', i. Holland, Utrecht and Gelderland in the northern Netherlands, but in Bruges in Flanders in the southern Netherlands, one of the wealthiest and largest cities of Europe at the time.
Sunt enim singuli lapides quorum non parvus acervus est tantx magnetudinis, ut nullos currus, nullasque naves admittere posse videantur neque ibi fodina lapidum sunt, ut loco paludoso, quare suspicio est, eos illuc a damonibus, qui Herculis nomine ibi colebantur, adductos fuisse. Foramen ipsum ob ignominiam 's Duvels Kut, hoc est, Damonis cunnus, appellatur. Sed immola- tionem sustulit D. Hujus monumenti videndi causa, Drusus Germanicus fama excitus, auspiciis Augusti, primus Romanorum Septentrionalem Oceanum navigavit, teste Plinio, lib. Haec eo paulo latius retuli, ut eximatur Commentariis Althameri error; qui hunc Taciti locum explicans, has Herculis columnas pro iis accipit, quas in Gadibus ille statuit.
Research of Dutch hunebeds before 37 Copyrighted material On the pillars rest altar stones — Italians call rocks altars, as a renowned poet states [Virgil, Aeneis, lib. Before the victims were slaughtered, they were compelled to crawl through a small passage under the altar stones, during which they were soiled by faeces and then caught. This is still done nowadays, especially with native Brabanders, and murder fre- quently ensues.
Saint Boniface has put an end to the sacrifices, however. According to Pliny, Drusus Germanicus, incited by its fame, tried to visit this monument and was the first Roman to sail over the North Sea in the name of Augustus. But, as Tacitus tells us, [stormy weather] prevented him from inves- tigating the sea and Hercules. I digress on these matters to correct an error in the Commentaries by Althamer, who in his explanation of these lines of Tacitus took these to be the Pillars of Hercules at Cadiz.
At the time, the towns of the southern Netherlands the present-day Belgium were the administrative and intellectual centres of all The Netherlands under King and Emperor Charles V of Hapsburg. Presumably under influence of Van Aytta and Hopper, the Duuels kutte ap- peared on maps made by the imperial cartographers Jacob van Deventer and Christiaan sGroten, from onwards.
It occurred on maps of Drenthe until Bakker , Some of Van Deventer's maps were published in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Abraham Ortelius, including the first palaeogeographic map, first printed in 1 , of the northern Netherlands, as it was during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus Figure 4. This map, which was designed by Hopper, shows two pillars at Rolde, with the legend columnae herculis, Duuels Cutz hodie '. Cutz is unusual if not unique, however.
It does not look like a plural form and may have been influenced by the German word Fotze. In the Encyclopedie voor Drenthe Gerding et al. Duvelskut , I summarised Schonhovius's Devil's Cunt story and precisely this element was applauded by the journalist Atte Jongstra in his review of the encyclopaedia in NRC Handelsblad.
It is, however, popular among present-day Dutch archaeologists. But the editors of the present book considered 'Devil's Cunt' in the title out of the question, because the indecent name would prevent the distribution of the book in the English-speaking world. Apparently there are striking differences in the prudery of various nations One or two hunebeds in the village ofRolde denoted as 'columnae herculis, Duvels Cutz hodie' on the first pcdaeo graphic map of the northern Netherlands Ortelius photograph Amsterdam University Library. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 39 Copyrighted material It is obvious that manuscript copies of Schonhovius's story circulated widely in the 1 6th century, because Hadrianus Junius Adriaan de Jonghe [ ] and Cornelius Kempius Cornelis Kemp [ca.
Where the original manuscripts are kept is unknown to me. The story was also briefly referred to 1 by Ubbo Emmius , Arend van Slichtenhorst , Johan Picardt , 25, 27, , Joan Blaeu  and Martin Mushard . And he described the entrance passage of one hunebed. Schonhovius may have been referring to hunebed Dl6-Balloo Bakker , Perhaps hunebed DlO-Gasteren is another possibility, because it is locat- ed where the Duuels kutte was roughly placed on the maps made by Jacob van Deventer.
Hopper, on the other hand, may have based the depiction of two Pillars on his map on the two hunebeds at Rolde, D17 and D18, which lie parallel, 70 m apart, about m east of the church of Rolde. After Schonhovius , it took more than years before original obser- vations on hunebeds were made, by Picardt The family name Picardt or Piccardt derives from a farm named Pickhart in the County of Bentheim, just east of the Dutch Republic and has nothing to do with Picardie in northwest- ern France.
He was a clergyman in 86 Martin Mushard, a German antiquarian who worked in the Bremen-Stade region, cited the Devil's Cunt story anonymously and in general terms in his manuscript of Mushard , cf. Liebers , , Bakker , Further details about and possible explanations for this rather enigmatic text are in Bakker Waterbolk that I overlooked in are cited in Bakker , Salzwedel in the German Altmark, show that the common idea that Christian priests urged their flock to destroy such heathen monuments does not hold water.
Picardt took the degree of Doctor of Medicine in Leiden in and was inscribed in the Album of Groningen University in He had a special interest in reclaiming waste lands for cultivation. The Count of Bentheim appointed him, in , director of the reclamation of a peaty region to the south of the Drenthe-Bentheim boundary, in Germany, where he founded the villages Alte Piccardie and Georgsdorf.
Picardt's Antiquiteten gave Drenthe its first history. He integrated folk tales, constructive imagination, historic sources and archaeological monuments. He was the first field archaeologist of The Netherlands and paid attention to prehistoric landmarks and discussed hunebeds, barrows, Celtic Fields, 91 mottes, ring forts, hoards of Roman denarii, etc. Jacob-Friesen called him 'the first researcher of Lower Saxon prehistory', which he also was for the northeastern Netherlands.
Picardt argued that the hunebeds were burial chambers for giants, the first inhabitants of Drenthe, who had come from Scandinavia and ultimately from the Near East, basing himself on the Old Testament, 92 the Historia de gentis sep- 89 Gerding ; Gerding in Gerding et al. Bechtluft on the internet. Marginal notes in ink show a special interest in Rutger van den Boitzelaer, Bailiff of Coevorden and the Landscape of Drenthe, to whom the text pays ample attention p.
Presumably this copy was once Van Boitzelaer's. The book is very popular among Dutch archaeologists; W. Glasbergen even gave a copy to each of his six children letter from Kaj Glasbergen, 1 9 April, ! The name 'Celtic Field' for these field systems was once used in England, but is there now replaced by 'walled fieldsystems'. It stuck in The Netherlands, however. The Danish term is porsehaver.
Although Cornelius Kempius Kemp [ca. Celtic Fields in Friesland-Drenthe in his De origine, situ, qualitate et quntitate Frisiae, et rebus Frisiis olim praeclare gestis, libri tres , ; cf. Bakker , , he didn't describe them. Picardt , , on the other hand, described Celtic Fields in detail.
Before Tonkens's discussion of a Celtic Field , , Picardt's was the only accurate description on the continent. Moses mentioned giants who ultimately perished in the Flood Genesis 6: But there were also giants after the Deluge, because the spies of Moses saw giants in the Land of Canaan Numeri According to 'Berosus', they descended from Noah and his sons Picardt , 27, Holsteijn II after a painting by H.
Nijhoff and the title page of Picardt photograph Sidestone Press. Met koopere Platen verciert. Giants and a hunebed; one giant is munching a bearded man. Figures 6 and 8 are the first pictures of Dutch hunebeds, but not very faithful renditions. Picardt , , 55 argued that the giants were formerly called Herculeses; 95 the minimal attire and the clubs of the giants in Figures 6- 93 Olavs Magnus's ideas about giants 1 were inspired by the Gesta Danorum written by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus who died in Saxo thought that most of the stone monuments had been built before the Flood K.
Emperor Maximilian of Austria possessed the weaponry of a giant, found in Roomburg near Leiden. Dutch sailors found remains of giants in Tierra del Fuego. A giant's skeleton was found in a round barrow, the Topbergh at Westerbork in Drenthe; others were found on the beach of Terschelling, and on Crete Picardt , Giants wailing during a cremation of a deceased giant Picardt , print facing p.
Holsteijn II photograph Sidestone Press. They were first depicted in the art of the mid-thirteenth century and became very popular in the second half of the fourteenth century Moser , Ostkamp discussed Wildmen on 16th-century Rhineland stoneware and referred to the catalogue Die wilden Leute des Mittelalters, Hamburg: Hendrik van de Waal  and S. Moser , , W. Picardt did not discuss them in detail. Loccenius is not cited by Picardt. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 19 12 45 Figure 8. Giants building a hunebed, while normally sized men are contemplatively looking on Picardt , print facing p.
Picardt , 25 dated the Drenthe hunebeds after the Flood, because many similar megaliths were found in Scandia, most with Gothic [runic] inscriptions, according to Olavs Magnus , whereas Hebrew was the only language spo- ken before the Flood. In the early 16th centu- ry, Nico laus Marschalk [ca.
In , the learned scholar Johannes Goropius Becanus [Jan van Gorp from [Hilvaren-]Beek, ] had concluded from etymological speculations that Dutch was the most ancient and most perfect language in the world, which was spoken in paradise itself, the lingua adamica Frijhoff , 6. Becanus published this in a book of ca. The lingua adamica was discussed by Umberto Eco, in , and by Allison P. About at that time, Scandinavian scholars tried to prove that the Finnish language was related to Hebrew. While there, he heard that there were 'many 1 0 1 Stemmermann 1 , ; Gummel , 1 , The chronicles of Kantzow and Marschalk were probably handwritten, and not published at the time.
Marschalk assigned the megalithic graves to the Germanic Heruli. He seems to have been the first German scholar who excavated megalithic graves and urnfields for scientific purposes Gummel , The locality name Stapel refers to the 'piled' stones of a hunebed; cf. Stapelstein, a small hunebed at Etzel-Stapelstein in Ostfriesland, Germany. Another Stapelstein was a small hunebed near Friedeburg, Ostfriesland Friedrich Arents in De Vriend des Vaderlands , , see Arentzen , 26 ; the distance from Etzel to Friedeburg makes it improbable that Arents, who was usually quite accurate, was referring to the Stapelstein at Etzel.
I Horum forma in tabula sequenti [the map men- tioned below] manifestatur Dilich , 26, cited by Gummel , The two gentlemen climbing on it are, however, much too small in relation to the monument, just like the students on George Hoefnagel's print of the Pierre Levee near Poitiers, France, from which Dilich clearly got his inspiration in G.
Braun, Civitates orbis terrarum, vol. Hoefnagel attributed the Pierre Levee to the Picts, 'the founders of Poitiers', not to the famous giant Pantagruel, known from Francois Rabelais whose real name was Alcobifras Nasier: Research of Dutch hunebeds before 47 C opy rig h! He also mentioned hunebeds in the neighbourhood of Schledehausen cf. On the other hand, the 'universal scholar' Hermann C. Picardt , 33 wrote: The Devil played here his tricks in a surprising way and strange and unbelievable things are said to have been heard and seen there about.
Few people were found to be so bold and undaunted that they dared to pass them by night. But the more Jesus Christ dominated our region, and the more that the light of the Holy Gospel broke through, the less the Devil could have his way and the more this Egyptian darkness waned. Therefore this manifestation pracherije is no longer experienced.
Although Picardt , 30 was well aware that all giants 'were exterminated in all parts of the world by God's hand', the Amsterdam patrician Nicolaes Witsen, known for his books about Tartarye inner Russia and ship building Peters , expected that his skipper would find giants in Terra Australis on his voyage Naarden , Camper, Paris, July 10, And as late as , F. Focke 1 , p. The devil was not a metaphor for 17th-century Calvinists, but an actual person, as he still was in a widely used midth-century Dutch Roman Catholic religious manual for children Br.
He was still active in 20th-century Dutch folklore Sinninghe ; Heupers , They are four, five or six steps wide. The smallest stones lie un- derneath, planted in the ground, and serve as pillars and foundation stones. The largest lie on top, some of which are nine man's fathoms in circumference. Some are forty feet in circumference, others 36, 30, 25, 20 etc. In most and in the largest Stone-heaps three stones are found at the western side, which are placed such that they have the shape of a window-frame or door, so that someone, slightly bending himself, may enter and take shelter. All round these oblong Stone-heaps, at about three steps distance, stands another row of stones, set into the ground and each 4, 5, 6 feet tall and usually spaced two feet apart, 1 1 3 standing upright, encircling the p rincipal A step tred had no fixed size.
The cartographer Jacob van Deventer [ca. If we assume an equivalent of 0. If we assume a slightly smaller equivalent of 70 cm, most hunebeds were, according to Picardt, about 11m long, whereas others were 14 m or more long and the widths were 2. Waterbolk observed letter Dec. According to Von Velen's report of Veltman ; Laux , , its largest, west- ernmost capstone was 22 feet long, 10 feet wide and 4 feet thick.
The exact length of the 'plump Westphalian' foot of Von Velen is unknown. Schlicht , cited by Sprockhoff , 90 and Laux , using the Rhineland foot of cm, calculated that the dimensions of this huge capstone were 6. If so, Von Velen's foot would have been If the formula of Huisman and Van der Sanden and the specific gravity of 2. Bakker , , it would have weighed about 0. In German Lower Saxony, the current feet were between A Drenthian foot was Which one Picardt used is un- known, but if it is assumed that he used the Drenthian foot, which was the average of the Frisian and the Groningen houtvoet, the circumferences of the largest capstones would be The Rijnlandse voet Rhineland foot was 12 duymen thumbs.
One Rijnlandse voet was Research of Dutch hunebeds before 49 Copy rig hied material Stone-heaps. I have heard that on some of these stones letters and strange charac- ters were found; I looked for these with great diligence, but couldn't find the least trace of them. Any letters that may have been there, or any that may be discovered, would be Gothic letters. In arguing for a close similarity between the hunebeds in Scandinavia and Drenthe, Picardt wrote: Creditable men who have seen them in Scandia as well as in Drenthe state that they are one and the same work. The illustrations made of them testify to this.
Picardt , 33 mentioned potten ofkannen pots or jugs in which the cre- mated bones of giants were placed in hunebeds, which suggests some knowledge of the ceramic contents of hunebeds acquired by excavation? Displaying insight remarkable for his time, Picardt stated: Tonkens , 48 even reported that the entrances were in the eastern end. These erroneous statements may reflect the ruined state of the hunebeds at the time. His illustration shows that he was aware that these walls were lower in the middle than at the cor- ners Brongers Picardt 1 , also described first-hand the stratigraphy and compo- sition of peat bogs, and of the objects found therein among which were 'pot- sherds'.
One hundred years later, this would induce Van Lier to discuss peat bog formation in Drenthe at length see section ''. Because he could not understand how they could have been constructed by normally sized men, he considered Picardt's giant hunebed builders theory 'not so very unlikely'. As the earliest known 'In een van dese heb ick een reys hier en daer in de aerde laten graven I om t'ondersoecken of men yet in de grondt soude vinden I en hebhe in 't midden van een deser perckjes gevonden een plaets I soo groot als een wagen-radt I bestraet en geplaveyt met kleyne keselingen; waer uyt ick gepresumeert heb I dat 'et een vyer-stede of haert geweest zy I waer op vyer gestoockt is geworden: About Celtic Fields, see note He died in January, , when he was still working on Batavia Illustrata.
It is sometimes supposed that he only started writing Batavia Illustrata when he acquired access to the national archives, in , but this is impossible. Considerable parts of this voluminous book, including his ideas about Picardt, hunebeds and giants, must have been written earlier. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 51 C opy rig h!
In note m, p. He mentioned giants in the Old Testament and concluded that the Germani were strong hefty men. Even in the present-day Netherlands, he noted, there was a contrast between the large and strong Frisians and the short and slender Brabanders and Flemish. Van Leeuwen apparently did not know that the 'Cimbric Peninsula', comprising Jutland and Schleswig-Holstein, is very rich in megalithic tombs. Apart from Ludolph Smids , who had visited the Drenthe hunebeds from nearby Groningen, where he lived, before he moved to Amsterdam see sec- tion '' , no other historian from the western parts of the country would pay attention to the hunebeds until Andries Schoemaker in , who would then be followed by Arnout Vosmaer, in , and Engelbertus Engelberts, in Before this occurred, Robert le Prevot de Cocherel, on whose property it stood, carefully excavated the monument and supervised the writing of a detailed report.
About twenty intact skeletons were found. It was reported that one skull had a deliberately made hole, which is now known to be the first description of a trepanation. The skeletons were accompanied by what Le Prevot recognised as stone axes, several mounted in antler sleeves. Flint arrowheads and daggers, a pierced pendant of jade and handmade pottery were also found.
A layer of cremated human bones lay under the skeletons. Le Prevot concluded that the cremations belonged to the an- cient Gauls, who practised cremation of their dead according to classical sources. He thought that the skeletons, on the other hand, belonged to a barbaric people who were vanquished, slaughtered and then interred by the Gauls.
Obviously no Christian graves were involved and the ecclesiastical and profane authorities, who had been invited to the investigation, authorised Le Prevot to deal with the excavated objects as he saw fit. His report was printed almost in full in English, in London Le Prevot , but, apart from a few summaries, it remained un- On Cocherel: Daniel I, and frontispiece; Masset , ; Schnapp , , 9; Giot , 10 ascribing the report to the parish priest M.
The history of documenta- tion and publication is very complex. See the detailed study by Cyrille Chaigneau in prep. Iselin responded that this observation was to be expected, because it tallied with the surmise of Lucretius and Hesiod that there was a succession of stone, copper and iron used for weapons and tools in prehistory. Iselin's letter was published by Montfaucon , 5 1 , p. For his illustrations of the skeletons in the tomb in Cocherel and of hafted flint axes, a stone axe, a pot and other objects from the tomb, see Schnapp , , ill.
See Schnapp , for an English translation of these lines by Lucretius. Through the studies by Alexandre-Yves Goguet , Piere Jean-Baptiste Legrand d'Aussy  and others, the former existence of successive Stone and Metal Ages and sometimes of Bronze and Iron Ages would ultimately become generally known.
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See Laming-Emperaire , about Legrand d'Aussy pers. He did not further specify 'vom allen ettwas '. Moreover, Picardt excavated in a Celtic Field in Drenthe, between and see section ''. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 53 Copyrighted material At the request of Ludolph Smids [ 1 ], her Groningen friend, who was a medical doctor, antiquarian and play- wright, she and her cousin Jan Laurens Lentinck organised an excavation in the chamber of the Great Hunebed DBorger Figure 9.
This was the second docu- mented excavation of non-Roman antiquities in The Netherlands. In this poem she rejected the idea that this Stoneheap was a memorial of the gallant Huns [het dappre Hunnenschap], or that it were [sic] uplifted pyra- mids [getorste pieramyden] or tombs, because its vault contained offerings of holy ashes from prehistoric times, and that the hunebed had been built by giants. Therefore she laid a wreath of flowers and oak leaves on the tomb. Smids, who did not assist with the excavation, but received what she recovered, published her description that a street-like cobble stone layer was in the chamber under which were pottery, 'breaking to pieces', 'ash' and 'petrified' bones.
The actions and poems of Brongersma and Smids concerning hunebed D27 and hunebeds in general were discussed in more detail in Van Giffen , and Bakker , R. Nijkeuter , added little. His Roman Catholic education began in Antwerp, in , and continued in a Westphalian monastery, in In , he studied at Groningen University. Thereupon he studied in Leiden, where he took his doctor's degree in medicine, in , and returned to Groningen, where he married in His wife died in He remarried a Calvinist woman and was converted to her faith. The couple moved to Amsterdam, in , because his Groningen friends were hostile to this conversion.
There he practiced as a medical doctor and wrote books and stageplays and earned fame for his antiquarian studies Smids In it, Titia , 8 gave DBorger the following names: Hunne-bed 'Hunnebed' ; de ongemeene, opgestapelde Steenhoop 'this exceptional, piled up Stoneheap' ; dees Steenmyt 'this Pile of Stones' ; dit grove berggewas 'this crude mountain- growth' ; Steen-Paleys 'Palace of Boulders' ; Grott 'Cave' and Keye-slott 'Boulder-palace'.
Charcoal was not explicitly mentioned. Titia Brongersma, dressed as Sappho, supervises the excavation of hunebed D27 -Borger by her nephew Lentinck and workmen, in Schijnvoet in Smids Christian Schlegel  in Arnstadt and Gotha in Germany. To Schlegels question 'If the hunebeds are really graves, have bones of giants ever been found in them? He enclosed some of the sherds, which displayed 'the uncivilised simplicity of that ancient time', and some of the bones, which showed a 'hard petrification'. As we know now, this hardening of the bones was mainly due to the cremation itself.
See Part Al, above. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 55 Copy rig hied material Smids also wrote a poem about Titia's excavation, to which Titia replied with another poem with the same rhyme-words both published in Smids , 61 and , ; Titia's poem was also published in Brongersma , 9. After these three poems from and a lost one written by Johannes Mensinga, no other poems concerning Dutch hunebeds appeared until Between then and the year more than forty were written.
He did not speak about giants. The implicit conclusion that the hunebeds were built by normally sized men, not giants, in his correspondence with Schlegel shortly after , was published in by the Germans Johann Christoph Olearius  and in by Jodocus Hermann Nunningh . This observation led to the rejec- tion of the theory that giants were the builders by Olearius, in , Nunningh and Johann Heinrich Cohausen , in , and Johann Georg Keysler , in In , Hendrik van Rijn or Henricus van Rhijn [?
He mentioned the terms Hunebedden and Hunebergen for tumuli, and that Huine meant 'giant', but did not discuss the hunebeds themselves — which is not surprising in a book on ecclesiastical history. Gratama , 25 and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, in the s and 1 s, could not find this work.
An undated manuscript Job. About Seymour Mulder, see Nijkeuter, Waardeel 27 ', 3 , In , the German clergyman J.
He recorded the megalithic graves he knew from Drenthe, northern Germany and southern Scandinavia and copied the list of Smids with its errors. Tollius's trip through Germany and Von Hennin's giant hunebed builders In two letters, written in , the Dutch learned philologist Jacob Tollius  described megalithic langbetten megalithic long barrows near Magdeburg, Germany, which he saw on his way to Potsdam.
In his opinion, they contained the remains of ancient Germani, and he obviously did not be- lieve in giant megalith builders himself. In Potsdam he met the 'Great Elector' of Brandenburg, Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern [, who ruled from to ] and told him of these monuments. In response, the Elector stated that he had once organised the excavation of such a megalithic tomb in Holstein with the expectation of finding the bones of giants, but that only ancient coins were discovered Schulz In contrast to Tollius, Von Hennin still believed that only giants could have built the hubebeds.
Picardt is referred to in the notes and there is a plate of giants building a hunebed Figure 10 , which is clearly based on Picardt's illustrations Figures 6 and 8. Hofstede described the excavated 'Roman' pottery and its stratigraphical position between different layers of stones in detail; he mentioned 'ash', but no stone or flint arte- About Tollius, see Peters , n. That no bones were found may be due to negligence of the excavators, to the absence of cremated remains, or to an earlier clearance of the chamber.
See Part Al , above, about coin finds in megalithic graves. Syv in Klindt-Jensen , He was one of the last to do so before the present-day 'New Age'. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 57 Copy rig hied material Figure Hofstedes report was the first to present this modern explanation for part of the mass of pottery in Dutch hunebeds. Giants were not mentioned. This objective and detailed report was not published until and had no notable influence on subsequent studies.
Smids returns to the giants Amazingly, in his encyclopaedia of Dutch castles, towns and antiquities, published twenty-six years after Titia Brongersma's excavation in hunebed D Borger , Smids reverted to the theory that giants had built the hunebeds , , , To attribute this acceptance of Picardt's theory to Smids's conversion from Roman Catholicism to Calvinism in , and his moving from Groningen to Amsterdam in , may seem far-fetched, but orthodox Calvinism took - and takes - God's Word literally.
Hofstede was found in the Drenthe archives, according to Van der Sanden. In , Johannes Hofstede became the protestant minister at Ruinerwold Van der Sanden , , , n. Several other younger members of the prominent Groningen-Drenthe family Hofstede figure in the present study. He wrote Dies Geniales , see 'References'. It was cited and dicussed by Van Giffen , The earliest known artefacts from Staphorst date from the Middle Ages, but a standard timescale was added to the report, because much earlier finds could be expected here.
The times- cale triggered a vehement discussion in the municipal council about the dates for the Palaeolithic period. An alderman demanded that a statement saying that according to the Bible the world was created less than years ago would be inserted in the report which, according to Dutch law, was paid for by the municipality. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 59 C opy rig h! Smids's giants were, however, the earliest humans, who had a taller and larger body, or were much stronger than present men ' het menschdom is in de aller- eerste tyden grooter en onbesuisder van lichaam, of sterker en geweldiger van krachten geweest': Smids's later avowal that giants built the hunebeds may have been more appar- ent than real.
In the first place, Smids himself never explicitly wrote that normally sized men had built the hunebeds; he only stated that the bones found in the chamber of D27 were those of normally sized men. Secondly, it is conceivable that only after , when he speculated that Swabians, Saxons or Danes construct- ed the hunebeds, he came to think about how such heavy capstones could have been positioned. Consideration of this feat had prompted his contemporaries Van Leeuwen and Von Hennin to accept Picardt's theory that only giants had been able to do this see sections ' Van Leeuwen' and ' and '.
Apparently, none of these authors consulted engineers. The idea that normally sized men could have done this with levers, rollers, etc. Smids published the first list of extant hunebeds in The Netherlands and ad- jacent parts of Germany in his encyclopaedia , This list, partly a compilation of hunebeds mentioned by Picardt, was inaccurate because it also included several non-megalithic barrows, but the existence of a large number of tombs in the northeastern Netherlands and adjacent parts of Germany was com- municated to a wider audience.
Pfahlwurm or Schiffsbohrmuschel , a wormlike bivalve mollusc, up to 30 cm long, inadvertently brought in from Asia in the hulls of ships, which attacked wood in salty waters Figure The sea side of most dikes along the North Sea and the Zuyder Sea consisted of 1. See Appendix 3 for the German text. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 61 C opy rig h!
These wooden fences were rapidly tunnelled by the shipworm and broke like matchsticks. General panic ensued, because if the dikes broke half of the country could easily be flooded! This Resolution in Drenthe was the third law in the world enacted to pro- tect antiquities. The first law was proclaimed by King Christian IV of Denmark, in , and, in , King Gustav Adolph of Sweden gave legal protection to That German Ostfriesland was also affected Figure 1 1 seems to be little known in Germany; at least a recent study Endlich does not mention the shipworm catastrophe.
Three drawings by Rembrandt at the Diemen sea dike show the heads of the vertical beams of the old wooden dike fences cf. Benesch and ; HdG B. Bentinck, letter of March 5, Haasse , whose paraphrase shows that she misunderstood Bentinck's technical explanation and thought that the dikes were 'first laid on driven piles and later on heaps of stones ledereen is er hier van overtnigd, dat die [dijken] in plaats van op in de grond gestagen palen op schuin oplopende Stapels van grote stenen aangelegd moeten worden.
Nordic erratic boulders were used from until , when basalt from the Rhineland became used instead. During the French occupation, , Tournay stones were used. The quantities used and costs were enormous: Otherwise, the Resolution protecting the hunebeds was reconfirmed text in Bakker b.
The Zuyder Sea dike at Diemen before and after the shipworm catastrophe of the early s. The new stone-covered dike is in the front. Behind it is the former dike, which consisted of a fence of wooden beams protecting a dam of compacted seaweed De Leth ca. In , as governor, he extended the Resolution of by ordering the local authorities 'to keep a vigilant eye on the strict com- pliance of this [decree] Excavation or investigation of antiquities or monu- ments remains forbidden without demonstrable advance knowledge of the proper authority.
Most of the former is dealt with in Bakker b. In France, only 'from about onwards, [did] a concern about the preservation and description [of megalithic monuments] manifest itself, at least in the Morbihan' Giot , The proclamation of was perhaps connected with the refusal of Janssen's request for permission to excavate hunebeds in and see section ''.
Gratama was the first to point out the importance of these reports. Research of Dutch hunebeds before 63 Copy rig hied material Schoemaker, Pronk and De Haen visit hunebeds The Amsterdam wealthy textile merchant Andries Schoemaker  had a passion for topography and history.
He travelled through large parts of the north- ern Netherlands to document ancient buildings, mansions, churches and the like. At seventy-one years, he visited Drenthe, Friesland and Overijssel between June 28 and July 9, , with the topographical draughtsman Cornelis Pronk [1 ] and his pupil Abraham de Haen  , who drew many topographi- cal views for him. His maidservant Geesie Arens accompanied them and was shown sitting on a capstone in one of the drawings , Half a century after Simon van Leeuwen , Schoemaker was the first known visitor from the western Netherlands with an active interest in hunebeds.
Probably Abraham de Haen drew the one that is reproduced in Figure That the pictures of Figures 13 and 14 are dated seven and twenty-two years, respec- tively, after the trip with Schoemaker, shows that Pronk and De Haen also drew hunebeds on later trips to Drenthe — Schoemaker had apparently convinced them of their topographical interest.
Van Giffen concluded from Pronk's [and De Haen's] drawings that the position of the large boulders of D53 and D54 was almost the same as in , whereas the oak coppice mentioned by Schoemaker and shown in Figure 13 had disappeared and [barrow] sand had been taken away Van Giffen , Schoemaker described both Havelte hunebeds extensively in But he was told that much larger hunebeds could be found near Zuidlaren.
He discussed these drawings in detail , , , Schoemaker stated that Pronk drew D 53 and D54 in 1 , i. This suggested to me that the drawing of D53, in a different style Figure 13 , was made by De Haen. Schoemaker was presumably impressed by Picardt's story that a flock of sheep could be sheltered under a capstone, but Picardt was referring to a different hunebed, Surbolds Grab in Germany see section '' and note 1 Moreover, the loose stones of a destroyed large hunebed usually make a smaller impression than the original tomb — this is a well-known optical illusion.
Washed pen drawing, probably made by Abraham de Haen , September 16, Drents Museum Assen, negative Research of Dutch hunebeds before 19 12 65 'One heap [DHavelte] consisted of 20 to 22 small and large stones, among which some are as tall as I am. Under them is a hollow [viz. Formerly, this hollow was dug in and urns were found containing dead mens bones, ash and Roman coins [penningen]. These stones were artificially placed upon each other [by men] and not by Giants, as often is claimed.
I think that, although Giants existed, they lacked the strength to place these astounding stones upon each other, but I cannot find out the real truth. The second heap [DHavelte] had fewer stones, but the underlying stones [leg- gers] were still larger than in the first heap. These stones looked bluish on the outside and some were covered with a mossy slime, but seen from inside they resembled red marble with white and brown veins and sparkled like very small pieces of rock-crystal. I took a piece as a curio with me, which was almost as red in colour as red brick. There was an oak coppice around these stone-heaps [cf.
Figure 13] and at a shots distance away peat was dug from the heath, although it is not as good as our bog- peat is. Having satisfied our curiosity, we brought our guide [the schoolmaster] back to Havelte and drove to Steenwyk. We saw many stones of this kind on the way, but they were much smaller and more numerous until we were close to Steenwyk.
The boulders that were Schoemaker's size were capstones. Synde de klynste die overynde staan door de groote gedeckt en daaronder is dan een holte, welke holte weleer syn opgegraven en wierden daar urnes in gevonden daar doodsbeenderen, assche en Romynse penningen in gevonden wierden. Na myn oordeel syn dese steenen door konst op malkanderen gebraght en niet door Reusen als er voorgegeven word, immers het kompt myn soo voor want het schynt myn, schoon er Reusen geweest waren, dat die geen kragten gehad hebben om dese soo verbaasde steenen op den anderen te brengen, hoe 't sy de regte waarhyt daarvan te weten kan ik niet navorssen.
De tweede hoop waren sooveel steenen niet, maar de leggers waren noch grooter als van de eerste hoop, dese steenen vertoonde haar buyten aan de blaauwe kant en eenige met een mosachtig slym bedeckt, doch wanneer men die van binnen besagh soo vertoonden se sich als een rood marmer met witte en bruyne aaren vol glinsterende [steentjes] als een soort van b ergeh ristal doch seer klyn. Ik braght om de rarityt een stuckie mede, het rood was haast van coleur als de roode gebacke steenen.
Rondom deze steenhoopen was kreupelbosch van Ekenhout, een scheutweegs van daar groef men in de hey turf, doch die was lang soo goet niet als onse veenturf is. Onse nieuwsgierighyt als daar voldaan synde bragten wy onse lydsman weder te Havelte en wy reden na Steenwyk, onder wegen vonden we veel van die soort van steenen doch in lang niet van die groote maar wel een groote menigte tot dicht onder Steenwyk toe.
Van Noordes drawing and Van Lier's investigation of hunebed DEext, and Vosmaer As a consequence of the protection law of , Joannes van Lier  Figure 16 , deputy alderman of the Landscape of Drenthe, who had studied classical languages and law in Leiden, was instructed, in , by the Drenthe government to restore D13, a small hunebed at Eext that was found under a bar- row, ca. From his detailed discussion of this discovery Van Lier , see Figure 17 , a broad outline of the course of events can be recon- structed.
D13 was first discovered, around , by a 'stone seeker', who was probing a barrow for stones to sell as reinforcement for sea dikes. When his iron rod hit a capstone, a 'thundering and hollow noise' caused him to flee. Nevertheless, the capstones were removed, although the rest of the chamber was left intact Van Lier , p. Between two floors of stones, less than one foot apart, they found stone axes and pots, which were sold to amateur collectors of national an- tiquities Figure Van Lier, who lived in the vil- lage of Annen, km away, and had a keen interest in nature and antiquities, was apparently soon aware of this discovery.
He was born in Rotterdam, was the son of a wine merchant and studied in Leiden from to Petrus Hofstede , an orthodox Calvinistic clergyman and Orangist born in Groningen, was his parson in Rotterdam. In , Van Lier went to Drenthe, where he married Rolin d a Johanna Hofstede , Petrus Hofstede's sister, the following year, and made a career in the Drenthe government.
The couple got fifteen children. A stone seeker collected erratic stones, which he sold for the building of sea dikes and, in the 19th century, also for macadam road pavements. One capstone, which had covered a culvert since about , was replaced in Rumour has it that one of the two other capstones lies somewhere near the old church; the third may have been shattered and the pieces sold for reinforcing sea dikes Van Lier , p.
One collector, in Groningen, remained anonymous. Alberda tot Vennebroek and Van Lier himself p. Van Lier's book reveals that the hunebeds were being exploited not only by locals probing for stones, but also by several gentlemen who rummaged for artefacts in hunebeds, barrows and urnfields at the time.
Research of Dutch hunebeds before 67 Copy rig hied material daily government of Drenthe, who backed him. Within two days he published a detailed anonymous report about the discovery, construction, investigation and restoration of the tomb, with no illus- trations, in the Groninger Courant of April 20, Van Lier , p. Less than a month after the publication in the newspapers, Cornelis van Noorde , a draughtsman from Haarlem, began an expedition to draw topographic features in the northeastern parts of the Republic and the border- ing German regions around Bentheim, Rees and Wesel Sliggers The church in Eext is outlined on the horizon.
On the same leaf he drew to scale a plan and sideview of a small flat flint axe with a straight cutting edge that had been found in the chamber. Van Noorde's washed pen drawings of both tombs were generally faithful to these sketches, but he added more gentlemen who are too small and omitted the flint axe and the Van Lier is vague about the exact date and circumstances of the rediscovery, in , making it seem that the rediscovery, his deliberations with bailiff and deputies, and the restoration all occurred in one day, April 18, The decision would have been made orally, which was easy, because Van Lier was the private secretary of the bailiff.
B, van der Sanden, July 19, The sequence of events in is my reconstruction; the reality may have been slightly different. In Van Liers seventeen letters to Arnout Vosmaer, written between and University Library Leiden BPL , I found no mention of D The last page of an undated letter from the winter has been cut away and Van Liers original 'antiquarian letters' from are not preserved, probably because they were used as copy for the printing of the book.
One of the two handwritten autobiographies of Vosmaer briefly mentions his own editorship of the book National Archives, The Hague, No. Later letters from Van Lier to Vosmaer and copies of Vosmaer's own letters to Van Lier are also absent from the files. This term is deceptive, because the ceiling of D13 consisted of three flat capstones and was not a barrel vault or corbelled. Van Lier , 12, 57 explicitly rejected Cannegieter's misconception , 11 that D13 had had a vaulting verwelfsel , according to Nederlandsche Jaarboeken 5 , This may have been the axe illustrated by Van Lier , pi.
This drawing on blue paper cannot be satisfactorily reproduced. Noorde, ad Vivum del. Van Ginkel et cd. Van Noorde's trip seems to have been directly related to the discovery of D13, perhaps instigated by an unknown principal. Soon after, during the summer of , Arnout Vosmaer  paid a visit to Van Lier and D Vosmaer, a self-taught, renowned collector of zoologic- al, geological and ethnographical objects and topographical drawings, had been a close friend of Van Lier since their youth in Rotterdam.
Van Lier improved Vosmaer's Van Lier , viii, 2. The [meteorological] summer is June-August. Before his marriage and his move to Drenthe, in , Van Lier shared a house with Vosmaer in Rotterdam for more than a year Pieters , 21; Niemeijer From to , Van Lier was the private secretary of the bailiff of Drenthe, A. From to , he was also a member of Gedeputeerde Staten county alderman , a member of the highest court in Drenthe Etstoel , from to , and, from onwards, general tax-collector in Drenthe.
Joannes van hier in , five years before his investigation ofhunebed DEext in Drenthe. The small portrait of frontispiece of Van hier depicts the same open, inquisitive look. Vosmaer bought books for Van Lier in The Hague. The axe very probably 'had lain in the chamber, because it was later found in sand, most of which had been excavated from the chamber. She had been collecting natural curiosities and apparently also objects of historical importance for the young Prince since By het Boerschap Eext, in het Landfchap Dkenthe , ontdekt , In wclke befcTiryvlnge zekerc Brief, over byzondere Nederukdschb Oudheden, zo op- ydieldcrd als wederlegd word.
Met noodige afbceldingen opgehelderd. Uitgegceven en met een Voorreden en Aantekeningea vermeerderd door A. L X, ure Title page of Van Lier's 'Antiquarian Letters' Research of Dutch hunebeds before she appointed the 36 year-old Vosmaer as Director of this Cabinet of natural and artificially made curiosities.
On the basis of this and the report in the Leidsche Courant of April 28, , Dr. Henrik Cannegieter  wrote a learned treatise on D13, in Cannegieter , with- out ever having seen the tomb or the artefacts, or having discussed it with its inves- tigator. In this treatise he also spoke about the interpretation of 'thunderstones' stone axes , the distribution and contents of tumuli Cannegieter , , and about 'Jacoba's jugs' Cannegieter , Since several of these medieval jugs which are white stoneware from Siegburg in the German Rhineland were found in the moat of Teylingen Castle, they were generally considered at the time to have been made by the Holland Countess Jacoba of Bavaria 'Jacoba van Beieren' [1 40 ] , when she was imprisoned in that castle [!
The 'thunderstones' from D13 were unsuitable for use as battle-axes in his opinion, and he thought they were probably ritual tools made by the Germanic priests for drumming on planks to chase the thunder away; they would have been in- terred in graves in tumuli and elsewhere until Charlemagne forbade this pagan ritual Cannegieter , He cleverly noted that the steps leading into the chamber of D13 were too small to accommodate giants and his opinion was that the builders were ancient Germani or Nordic peoples Cannegieter , He also questioned whether the discoverers had not stolen precious objects from D13 'which are sometimes preserved in many graves and a few Urns' Cannegieter , Although Cannegieter cited authors like Trogillus Arnkiel [ca.
Vosmaer sold his own collection soon after this appointment to the Prince. It consisted of an incredible number of quadrupeds, snakes, fishes and reptiles preserved in alcohol; 2 a multitude of stuffed birds; 3 insects; 4 minerals, stones [.. Martin and to classical authors and the Bible. Cannegieter wrote his treatise in the form of a 'First letter about particular Dutch antiquities' to an unknown gentleman. It was anonymously published, in , and had no sequel. When Vosmaer found several errors in this booklet, he sent it together with his remarks to Van Lier and asked him for a critical review Van Lier , viii.
Van Lier, who was then thirty-two, wrote his comments and observations about the tomb and its contents in extenso in four letters to Vosmaer, between January 31 and April 10, They were followed by a fifth letter on September 1, These letters or essays were very well edited and published by Vosmaer in a book Van Lier , which had pages and five folded plates.
Vosmaer's critical remarks were added in a preface and extensive footnotes. The book was dedicated by Vosmaer to H.
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